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abdominal distension

The abdomen is the area under the ribs and lungs and above the hips. It contains many of the organs such as the stomach, small and large bowel, liver, pancreas, spleen and kidneys. Abdominal distension is a bloated abdomen. 

Adenocarcinoma

A cancerous tumour with a gland like structure.

aetiology

The different factors that cause a disease or condition.

Aetiology

The cause or causes of a disease or condition.

Allergen

Something which causes an allergic reaction.

Allergens

Something which causes an allergic reaction.

Allergy

Food allergies happen when the body's immune system reacts to food very quickly after eating it. Tiny amounts can cause potentially life threatening reactions. Coeliac disease is not an allergy.

All Party Parliamentary Group on Coeliac Disease and DH - APPG

All Party Parliamentary Group on Coeliac Disease and DH is a special interest group in Parliament in Westminster which MPs and Peers can join. It allows a forum for issues affecting people with coeliac disease to be discussed.

Amaranth

The amaranth plant produces both leaves and seeds that are edible. Amaranth seeds can be cooked as a breakfast cereal or added to soups to provide extra flavour and thicken. Amaranth flour can be used as you would use wheat flour. You may find amaranth flour and seeds in health...

Amenorrhoea

An abnormal absence of menstruation.

Anaemia

This describes when the amount of haemoglobin is lower than normal levels or when the number of red blood cells is reduced.

Anaemic

To describe an individual with anaemia.

Antibodies

Produced by the immune system to attack viruses or bacteria.

antibody test

This measures antibodies which are produced by the immune system.

Association of European Coeliac Societies - AOECS

The umbrella organisation of European Coeliac Societies and is an independent non-profit association. Coeliac UK is a member of AOECS.

Ataxia

The loss of control of body movement and co-ordination. This may effect balance, movement, swallowing, speech and vision.

Autoimmune disease

A disease where the immune system mistakenly attacks its own cells.

Avenin

The protein in oats that is similar to gluten.

Awareness Week

Our main annual campaign with focuses around a theme to raise awareness about coeliac disease.

Barley malt extract

Widely used in a food as a flavour enhancer. It depends on the quantity used as to whether or not it can be included in a gluten-free diet. If a product is labelled gluten-free and contains barley malt extract, the product will contain no more than 20 ppm gluten and can...

biomarker

Biomarkers are substances in the body that doctors can measure to give them an indication of how a disease is developing or how a treatment is working.

Biopsy

A simple procedure which identifies damage in the gut typical of coeliac disease. It involves passing a thin flexible tube (an endoscope) via the mouth and into the small intestine where tiny samples of the gut lining are collected.

Bisphosphonates

Bisphosphonates are a type of medication commonly used to treat osteoporosis to slow down the rate of bone loss.

Blood glucose

The concentration of glucose (sugar) in the blood, measured in mmol/l .

Blood pressure

The pressure of the blood against the walls of the arteries as it is pumped around the body by the heart, measured in mmHg.

Board of Governors

Coeliac UK is governed by the Board who have overall responsibility for the direction of the Charity. People who sit on the Board, do so on a voluntary basis.

Bone mineral density - BMD

The strength of your bones. The lower your bone mineral density, the greater your risk of breaking bones. Bone mineral density is measured by having a bone density scan known as a Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) scan.

British Dietetic Association - BDA

The professional association for dietitians in the UK.

British Hospitality Association - BHA

A representative organisation for the UK hospitality industry, and promotes the interests of hotels, restaurants and food service providers.

British National Formulary - BNF

A joint publication of the British Medical Association and the Royal Pharmaceutical Society. It is published biannually and includes key information on the selection, prescribing, dispensing and administration of medicines. Medicines generally prescribed in the UK are covered and those considered less suitable for prescribing are clearly identified.

British Retail Consortium - BRC

A trade association representing retailers.

British Society of Gastroenterology - BSG

An organisation focused on the promotion of gastroenterology within the UK, with a membership drawn from physicians, surgeons, pathologists, radiologists, scientists, nurses, dietitians, and others interested in the field. The BSG is a registered charity.

British Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition - BSPGHAN

Provides professional leadership, promotes standards of care for children with gastrointestinal, liver and nutritional diseases and supports research, training and education for members in order to help facilitate its delivery.

British Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition

A professional organisation with the role of promoting research, training and standards of clinical practice for health professionals and scientists in childhood nutrition, digestive and liver health.

British Specialist Nutrition Association - BSNA

Formerly known as the IDFA (Infant Dietetic Foods Association), represents the manufacturers of specialist nutrition products, including gluten-free foods.

Buckwheat

A plant that produces starchy seeds that is often milled into flour.

Casein

A protein that is found in milk.

Case study

A person who offers their story to the media as a real example of living with coeliac disease.

Chemotherapy

A type of cancer treatment when chemotherapy medications are used to kill cancer cells.

Cholesterol profile

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat like substance produced in the liver but can also be found in some foods. The cholesterol profile is made up of LDL and HDL cholesterol. LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol is considered to be the bad cholesterol as high levels of LDL are associated with...

Clinical Commissioning Group

Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs) are statutory NHS organisations, made up of groups of GP practices, that are, from April 2013, responsible for commissioning local health services In England.

Codex Alimentarius

An international body set up by the Food and Agriculture Organisation and the World Health Organisation to develop harmonised international food standards, guidelines and codes of practice to protect the health of consumers and ensure fair practices in the food trade.

Codex Alimentarius Commission

An international body set up by the Food and Agriculture Organisation and the World Health Organisation to develop harmonised international food standards, guidelines and codes of practice to protect the health of consumers and ensure fair practices in the food trade.

Codex Alimentarius standard

The Codex standard for gluten is decided by an international body called the Codex Alimentarius Commission. It is the level that the law on gluten-free is based upon.

Codex Committee on Methods of Analysis and Sampling - CCMAS

The Codex committee that defines the appropriate Codex methods of analysis and sampling.

Codex standard

The Codex standard for gluten is decided by an international body called the Codex Alimentarius Commission. It is the level that the law on gluten-free is based upon.

Coeliac disease

(pronounced ‘see-liac’), a serious illness where the body’s immune system attacks its own tissues when gluten is eaten. This causes damage to the lining of the gut and means that the body cannot properly absorb nutrients from food. It is not an allergy or food intolerance. Gluten is a protein...

Contaminated

When gluten-free food comes into contact with gluten-containing foods, causing contamination with gluten.

Contamination

When gluten-free food comes into contact with gluten-containing foods, causing contamination with gluten.

CORE

Formed in 1971, previously known as the Digestive Disorders Foundation. CORE is a national charity for disease of the gut, liver and pancreas.

Corn

Also known as maize that can be ground to make cornmeal, used to make polenta.

CPG

Cross Party Group on coeliac disease and DH in Scottish Parliament and Welsh Assembly is a special interest group which MSPs and WAMs can join. We are on this Group as a means of exerting pressure on Parliament.

CQC

Care Quality Commission - is an independent regulator of health and social care in England. It regulates care provided by the NHS, local authorities, private companies and voluntary organisations.

Crohn's disease

A long term condition that causes inflammation to the lining of the digestive system most commonly occurring in the small intestine (ileum) or the large intestine (colon).

Cross contamination

Gluten accidentally getting into a food during processsing, cooking or serving.

Crossed Grain - XG

Our magazine which is published three times a year.

Crossed Grain symbol

Our licensed symbol that manufacturers use, showing the food is gluten-free.

Cross Party Group

Cross Party Group on coeliac disease and DH in Scottish Parliament and also the Welsh Assembly is a special interest group which MSPs and WAMs can join. We are on this Group as a means of exerting pressure on Parliament.

cytokines

A group of proteins that occur naturally in the body and carry out an important role as messengers in the body's immune system.

Dapsone

An antibacterial medication used to treat dermatitis herpetiformis.

Dermatitis herpetiformis - DH

The skin presentation of coeliac disease which is associated with small blisters that develop on the elbows and knees.

Dermatologist

A doctor who specialises in skin conditions.

diagnostic tests

Tests used to determine an illness or disease.

Dietitian

An expert in food and nutrition.

Dietitians

An expert in food and nutrition.

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid, the carrier of genetic information.

Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating - DAFNE

The DAFNE programme is a way of managing Type 1 diabetes and provides people with the skills necessary to estimate the carbohydrate in each meal and to inject the right dose of insulin.

Down's syndrome

Category - Terms

Genetic condition that typically causes some level of learning disability and characteristic physical features

Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry scan - DEXA

Bone mineral density can be measured by having a bone density scan, also known as a Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry scan.

duodenal biopsy

A biopsy is the removal of a piece of body tissue so that the cells within the tissue can be viewed under a microscope. A duodenal biopsy is removal of tissue from the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine/bowel).

Early Day Motion - EDM

Formal motions submitted for debate in the House of Commons. EDMs allow MPs to draw attention to an event or cause. MPs register their support by signing individual motions.

Endomysial antibodies - EMA

Antibodies that are measured in the blood as part of the diagnosis process for coeliac disease. Depending on the laboratory performing the test, one or more antibodies may be measured (see Tissue Transglutaminase).

Endomysial antibody - EMA

An antibody that is measured in the blood as part of the diagnosis process for coeliac disease. Depending on the laboratory performing the test, one or more antibodies may be measured (see Tissue Transglutaminase).

Endoscope

The endoscope is a thin, flexible tube that has a light and a camera. The endoscope is passed via the mouth and into the upper part of the gut that is affected in coeliac disease.

Endoscopy

An investigation that looks inside your gut. The endoscope is a thin flexible tube that you swallow. It has a light and a camera and is passed via the mouth and into the upper part of the gut that is affected in coeliac disease.

Enteropathy associated T cell lymphoma - EATL

a rare cancer of the T cells in the small intestine.

enzyme technology

Enzymes are proteins produced in the cells of the body and they help natural reactions to occur. Enzyme technology is the development of these proteins so that they have a specific effect on a selected reaction or function of the body.

Epidemiology

The study of how often diseases occur in groups of people and why. This can be used to plan and evaluate interventions to prevent illness and guide the management of patients with the disease.

Epilepsy

A condition that affects the brain that can cause seizures.

European Food Safety Authority - EFSA

Conducts risk assessments regarding food safety for the EU, and provides independent scientific advice.

European Licensing System - ELS

The framework agreement between European coeliac societies for licensing the Crossed Grain trademark.

European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition - ESPGHAN

A professional and scientific body which seeks to influence the standards of care for patients and sets standards for education, training and clinical excellence within Europe.

eXG

Our online email newsletter which is sent to our Members each month.

Exons

The protein-coding DNA sequence of a gene.

False negative test

A blood test that gives a negative result when the disease is present.

FDE

FoodDrinkEurope represents the European food and drink industry, the largest manufacturing sector in the EU in terms of turnover and employment. It aims to promote the industry's interests to European and international institutions, contributing to a framework addressing, inter alia, food safety and science, nutrition and health, environmental sustainability and...

Fermentable Oligo- Di- Mono-saccharides and Polyols - FODMAPs

Short chain carbohydrates that are poorly absorbed by the intestine. Ingestion of FODMAPs leads to changes in fluid content and bacterial fermentation in the gut triggering functional gut symptoms in susceptible individuals.

Fibre

There are two types including insoluble and soluble fibre. Insoluble fibre passes through the body without being absorbed, this is important for bowel health. Some of soluble fibre can be absorbed by the body and may help to lower cholesterol levels.

Flu

A highly infectious viral illness caused by certain strains of the influenza virus.

Folic acid

Folic acid can be described as a B vitamin. Folic acid and Vitamin B12 work together to help the body produce red blood cells. Sources of folic acid include; green leafy vegetables, beans and legumes and orange juice.

Food Advisory Panel - FAP

Provides the Charity with expert insight into the food sector and advice on gaining maximum benefit from the Charity’s activities in the sector.

Food and Drink Directory - FDD

Coeliac UK’s key source of information listing thousands of foods that can be included in a gluten-free diet.

Food and Drink Federation - FDF

Represents the UK food and drinks industry

FoodDrinkEurope

FoodDrinkEurope represents the European food and drink industry, the largest manufacturing sector in the EU in terms of turnover and employment. It aims to promote the industry's interests to European and international institutions, contributing to a framework addressing, inter alia, food safety and science, nutrition and health, environmental sustainability and...

Food Standards Agency - FSA

An independent Government department set up to protect the public's health and consumer interests in relation to food.

Food Standards Committee - FSC

A group of experts to steer the Charity on food standards relating to the use of the Coeliac UK symbols used in accrediting food companies producing both pre-packed and loose foods and also in advising on developments in legislative standards.

Free From

A range of food that is free from certain allergens - for example gluten or milk.

Gastroenterologist

A doctor who specialises in the digestive system.

Genomic

The study of genes, their functions, and related techniques.

genotype

A genotype is the genetic structure of a living thing (cell, plant, animal, human). Living things with the same genetic characteristics are said to be of the same genotype.

Gluten

A protein that is found in the cereals wheat, barley and rye.

Gluten-free

20 parts per million (ppm) of gluten or less.

Gluten-free (Codex) wheat starch

A specially manufactured wheat starch that has been washed to reduce the level of gluten to a level within the Codex standard. It is gluten-free.

Gluten-free food

Food which contains 20 parts per million (ppm) of gluten or less.

Governor

A person who is on the Charity's Board of Governors.

Gut biopsy

A simple procedure which looks for damage in the gut typical of coeliac disease. It involves passing a thin flexible tube (an endoscope) through the mouth and into the small intestine where tiny samples of the gut lining are collected.

Haemoglobin

Haemoglobin transports oxygen in the blood from the lungs to the tissues of the body.

Health Advisory Council - HAC

The Health Advisory Council advises the Charity on research and health issues helping to ensure that information and advice remains expert and up-to-date. The Council is made up of health experts from across the UK.

Health Advisory Network - HAN

The Health Advisory Network is a broader forum, drawn from a range of healthcare backgrounds, which helps the Charity by championing our cause in their professional fields.

Health and Wellbeing Boards

These are statutory bodies which aim to improve integrated working between local health care, social care, public health and other public service practitioners so that patients and service users experience more joined-up care.

Healthcare Professional - HCP

Someone who works in healthcare.

Healthcare Professionals

Someone who works in healthcare.

Health Overview and Scrutiny Committee - HOSC

A Health Overview and Scrutiny Committee - looks at the work of the Primary Care Trusts, NHS Trusts and Strategic Health Authorities in a particular region. It acts as a ‘critical friend' by suggesting ways that health related services might be improved.

Helpline

Our Helpline is staffed by dietitians and food experts. You can call us on 0333 332 2033 from 9am to 5pm Monday to Friday.

heterozygosity

Having two different forms of a particular gene.

HLA-DQ genetic variation

HLA-DQ is a white blood cell gene which provides the body's immune sytem information for the production of proteins. There are different types of HLA-DQ genes, like HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8. These different types of HLA-DQ genes are known as HLA-DQ genetic variation.

Hodgkin's lymphoma

A cancer of the B lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the lymphatic system, made up of a network of vessels and glands.

homozygosity

Having two identical forms of a particular gene.

Hypoglycaemia

The medical term to describe a low blood glucose level of less than 4 mmol/l.

Hyposplenic

When a person’s spleen does not function very well.

IgA deficiency

A selective lack of immunoglobulin A (IgA). The most common type of immunoglobulin deficiency.

IgA deficient

Someone who does not produce the specific antibodies used to identify coeliac disease.

IgA endomysial antibodies

Antibodies (proteins) which are made by the body's immune system and are associated to another protein, IgA (immunoglobulin A).

IgA tissue transglutaminase antibodies

The immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies (proteins) produced by the body's immune system in response to the enzyme, transglutaminase. These antibodies are measured in the blood in the diagnosis of coeliac disease.

IgA tissue transglutaminase antibodies

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a kind of antibody produced by the body's immune system in response to the enzyme, transglutaminase. These antibodies are measured in the blood in the diagnosis of coeliac disease.

ILSI Europe

ILSI Europe fosters collaboration among the best scientists to provide evidence-based scientific consensus on the areas of nutrition, food safety, toxicology, risk assessment, and the environment.

Immunoglobulin A

A type of protein present in the cells of the immune system. These function as antibodies when used by the immune system within an immune response.

Immunosuppressive drugs

Drugs prescribed by your GP or Consultant to help reduce inflammation and suppress your immune system.

Inflammatory bowel disease - IBD

the most common forms being Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

Ingest

When you eat something.

inherited genetic variants

Everyone has genes inherited from each of their parents. Some genes have slight differences in the order of their chain of proteins. These differences are known as inherited genetic variants.

Institute of Hospitality - IOH

Institute of Hospitality - is the professional body for individual managers and aspiring managers working and studying in the hospitality, leisure and tourism industry.

Insulin

A hormone made by the pancreas that enables the use of glucose for energy.

Intolerance

Food intolerance is generally not life threatening but affects digestion, including symptoms of digestive discomfort, diarrhoea and bloating. Coeliac disease is not an intolerance to gluten.

Iron

Iron is an essential part of haemoglobin, the red pigment in blood which is needed to transport oxygen around the body. There are two types including heam iron and non-heam iron. Heam iron comes from animal sources and can be better absorbed than non-heam iron. Non-heam iron comes from plant...

iron deficiency anaemia

Anaemia is a condition where the amount of haemagloblin in the blood is below the normal level or there are fewer red blood cells. There are many different types of anaemia but iron deficiency aneamia caused by a lack of iron is the most common.

Irritable bowel syndrome - IBS

A common but poorly understood chronic (long-term) condition where the normal functions of the bowel are disrupted.

Lactose intolerance

When your body cannot process lactose (the sugar in milk) properly. This can cause symptoms like wind, bloating and diarrhoea.

LDL cholesterol

Low density lipoprotein cholesterol, a waxy, fat like substance produce by the liver. High levels are associated with heart disease.

lethargy

Lack of energy.

Local Group

A local Group where Members of Coeliac UK can meet and they often organise events.

Local Voluntary Support Group

A local Group where Members of Coeliac UK can meet and they often organise events.

Local Voluntary Support Groups

A Local Group where Members of Coeliac UK can meet and they often organise events.

Lymphoma

A type of cancer which affects the lymphatic system.

Malabsorption

A failure to fully absorb nutrients by the gut.

Marsh classification

The changes to the small bowel seen in coeliac disease are graded by Marsh classification from 0 to 4.

Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency - MHRA

The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency are responsible for regulating all medicines, medical devices and equipment used in healthcare in the UK.

Member of Parliament

an elected member of the British Parliament: a member of the House of Commons.

Member of Scottish Parliament

an individual elected to serve in the Scottish Parliament.

Membership

If you have been diagnosed with coeliac disease, seeking a diagnosis or interested in the gluten-free diet then you can become a Member of Coeliac UK.

Meningitis C

an infection of the protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord caused by the menningococcal group C bacteria.

Millet

A small grain used as a source of food.

Monthly Index of Medical Specialities - MIMS

A pharmaceutical prescribing reference guide.

Mutations

A change in the genetic structure of a gene, resulting in a new variant.

National Health Service - NHS

The NHS was launched in 1948 and is a publically funded healthcare system .

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence - NICE

An independent organisation responsible for providing national guidance on promoting good health and preventing and treating ill health.

National Institute for Health Research - NIHR

National Institute for Health Research - provides the framework through which the Department of Health positions, maintains and manages the research activities of the NHS in England.

National Pharmacy Association - NPA

National Pharmacy Association - the trade body for community pharmacies in the UK.

neural tissue

The main part of the nervous system which regulates the body's response to movement and feeling.

neurological

This is associated with the nervous system, a system of cells, tissues and organs which regulate the body's response to movement and feeling.

neuropathy

A disease or dysfunction of the nerves outside the brain or spinal cord which usually results in tingling, a burning or shooting pain, numbness and or muscle weakness. Neuropathy may also be referred to as polyneuropathy to indicate that more than one nerve can be affected.

Neuropathy ? Peripheral neuropathy

A disturbance of the nerves that may cause numbness and tingling.

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

A cancer of the lymphatic system, made up of a network of vessels and glands.

Omega-3 fats

A type of polyunsaturated fat that has been found in oily fish and shown to promote heart health.

Osteopenia

Osteopenia describes a bone density that is below average when measured by a bone density scan.

Osteoporosis

A condition where your bones lose mass and become brittle.

Parts per million - ppm

Testing of gluten in food is measured in ppm. This might sometimes be seen as mg/kg.

pathogenesis

The development of disease.

Patient Advice and Liaison Service - PALS

The Patient Advice and Liaison Service is designed to help the NHS listen to patients, their relatives, carers and friends, and answers patient questions and concerns. PALS also provides information about the NHS complaints procedure.

Patient Reported Outcome Measures - PROM

Patient Reported Outcome Measures are measures of a patient's health status or health-related quality of life. They are typically short, self-completed questionnaires, which measure the patients' health status or health related quality of life at a single point in time. The health status information collected from patients by way of...

Peptides

Proteins are made up of these.

Pharmacy Services Negotiating Committee - PSNC

The body representing community pharmacists at the national level.

Placebo

Something that has no effect but is used as a control when testing, for example, a new drug or food .

Placebo effect

The beneficial effect produced from a placebo, arising from the patients belief in the treatment.

Pneumococcal disease

An infection caused by a bacterium that usually lives harmlessly at the back of many people’s throats. However, it can invade other parts of the body and cause serious, possibly life-threatening illnesses including pneumonia, septicaemia or meningitis.

Polymerase Chain Reaction - PCR

A fast and inexpensive technique used to "amplify" - copy - small segments of DNA to produce significant amounts of a sample of DNA for molecular and genetic analyses.

primary biliary cirrhosis

A rare long term liver disease where damage occurs to the small tubes in the liver that transport bile, a liquid used to assist in the digestion of fat and to transport waste products away from the body. As the tubes are damaged they become blocked and the bile builds...

Primary Care Society for Gastroenterology - PCSG

The Primary Care Society for Gastroenterology is a membership organisations for gastroenterologists who work in primary care. It provides input on commissioning or clinical governance from a primary care perspective.

Primary Care Trusts - PCT

the body responsible for the NHS at the local level e.g. Surrey PCT. All PCTs will be replaced by Clinical Commissioning Groups in 2013.

primary sclerosing cholangitis

An uncommon chronic condition where the fine tubes in the liver become inflamed and scarred.

primary sclerosing cholangitis

A rare long term liver disease where damage occurs to the small tubes in the liver.

Principle Investigator

The lead scientist or researcher of a given study.

Prognosis

The likely course of a medical condition.

Quality Innovation Productivity and Prevention - QUIPP

A programme designed to ensure that each pound spent in the NHS is used to bring maximum benefit and quality of care to patients.

Quality of life - QoL

The World Health Organisation defines quality of life as an individuals perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns.

Quality Outcomes Framework - QOF

The annual reward and incentive programme detailing GP practice achievement results.

Quality Standard

These are agreed standards (statements) designed to drive and measure qualilty improvements in healthcare and are based on NICE Guidelines.

Quality standards - QS

Agreed standards (statements) designed to drive and measure quality improvements in healthcare within a particular area of care and are based on NICE guidelines.

Quinoa

A small round grain used as a source of food.

rapid antibody testing

A fast measurement of the proteins (antibodies) produced by the body's immune system.

Rice

A type of grass used as a source of food.

RSSL

Reading Scientific Services Ltd

Selenium

A trace element that plays an important role in the functioning of our immune system and helps prevent cell and tissue damage.

Skin biopsy

A dermatologist takes a small sample of skin for testing.

Sorghum

A type of grain and a staple food in many parts of Africa, Asia and the Middle East.

Stakeholder

A person, group, system or organisation who affects or can be affected by an organisation's actions.

Steroids

An anti-inflammatory medication used to reduce inflammation, also referred to as corticosteroids.

Sulphamethoxypyridazine

A medication described as an antibacterial agent to reduce the growth of bacteria, used in the treatment of dermatitis herpetiformis.

Sulphapyridine

A medication used for the treatment of dermatitis herpetiformis.

Systematic Review

A review to identify and evaluate all published research answering a given question.

T-cell epitope mapping

T cells are specific cells in the immune system. Epitope mapping of T cells is to identify the reactive sites of these cells and what they bind to.  

Teff

A type of grass used as a source of food and native to North East Africa.

The Advisory Committee on Borderline Substances - ACBS

The body responsible for deciding the gluten-free foods available on prescription.

The Department of Health - DoH

The government department for health in England.

thyroid

The thyroid is a gland at the base of the neck. The thyroid produces natural chemicals (hormones) which control how much energy the body uses and the level of calcium in the blood. 

Thyroid disease

The thyroid is a gland in the neck that produces hormones. Disease may occur due to an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism) or an overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism).

Tissue transglutaminase

This is an enzyme involved in the joining of proteins and in the disease progression of coeliac disease.

Tissue Transglutaminase - tTG

An antibody that is measured in the blood as part of the diagnosis process for coeliac disease. Depending on the laboratory performing the test, one or more antibodies may be measured.

 

transglutaminase-based rapid blood tests

A fast method for the measurement of the transglutaminase (an enzyme) in the blood. This gives an almost instant test result.

T-score

an index that shows how much a person’s BMD is different from the average BMD of a young adult.

Turner syndrome

Genetic disorder that only affects females, that is associated with a wide range of symptoms and some distinctive characteristics

Type 1 diabetes mellitus - T1DM

A condition associated with coeliac disease. Diabetes is an autoimmune condition where the body produces no insulin and individuals therefore require insulin therapy. It is often referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes.

vascular disease

A serious disease of the arteries and veins which leads to a narrowing of the arteries.

Very low gluten

This covers foods containing between 21 and 100ppm gluten

Specialist substitute products (such as breads and flour mixes) that contain a gluten reduced ingredient (gluten-free (Codex) wheat starch) with a gluten level above 21 and up to 100 ppm may be labelled as ‘very low gluten’. There aren’t any foods currently labelled ‘very...

Villi

The finger like projections that line a healthy small intestine, they allow the body to absorb nutrients from the food we eat into the blood.

Villous astrophy

In untreated coeliac disease, villi become inflamed and flattened. In some cases, they can even disappear. This is called 'villous atrophy'.

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is found naturally in foods such as milk, eggs, fermented soya products, seaweed, fortified margarine and fortified yeast extracts. Vitamin B12 and folic acid work together to help the body produce red blood cells.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is made by the skin from spending time in the sun. Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium to support bone health. Food sources of vitamin D include; oily fish and fortified margarines

Welsh Assembly Member - WAM

An individual elected in the National Assembly for Wales to represent a geographical constituency in Wales.

Wheat intolerance

Food intolerance is generally not life threatening but affects digestion, including symptoms of digestive discomfort, diarrhoea and bloating.

Wholegrains

The term wholegrain describes the entire grain that is made up of the bran, germ and endosperm.

World Health Organisation - WHO

An agency within the United Nations that was established in 1948 to lead on global health by coordinating the international research agenda and health activities.

Zinc

An essential mineral that has several important functions such as helping to make new cells and helping the body to process fat, protein and carbohydrate.

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